Eastern Forest Threat Center - Dalmatian Toadflax

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Dalmatian toadflax plants

Dalmatian toadflax plants

Linda Wilson, University of Idaho, Bugwood.org

Dalmatian Toadflax
Linaria dalmatica

Dalmatian toadflax has a native range from central Europe east to central Asia. It was originally introduced into North America as an ornamental plant.

Keywords: Scrophulariaceae, herbaceous, perennial, waxy stems and leaves, elongate spurs, adventitious buds, creeping roots; Common names: broadleaf toadflax

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Threat Description

Dalmatian toadflax is a short-lived, herbaceous perennial in the figwort family that grows up to 4 ft. tall. Its waxy stems are somewhat woody at the base and frequently branched in the upper portion. Leaves are heart-shaped, waxy, and 1 to 3 in. long with clasping bases. Flowers are bright yellow with orange markings and elongate spurs and occur in simple racemes on the stems. Flowering occurs from mid-summer to early fall. Seed capsules are ½-in. long pods that bear an average of 140 to 250 small black to brown seeds with wings. Taproots may reach 4 to 10 ft. deep, and lateral roots can extend 12 ft. from the parent plant. Dalmatian toadflax is capable of forming colonies through adventitious buds from creeping root systems. It is typically found along disturbed sites, roadsides, clear cuts, railroad rights-of-way, fences, croplands, pastures, and rangelands. It prefers dry sites with coarse, well-drained soils and can rapidly colonize disturbed or cultivated ground to out-compete desirable native plant species and decreases plant species diversity. It can significantly reduce crop yields, stress native communities, and compete to reduce the abundance of grasses and other forbs.